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MLA & APA help

Learn how to format papers, cite information sources using MLA and APA style, and how to avoid plagiarism.

What is on these pages?

Cover of the MLA Handbook 9th editionAPA Publication Manual 7th ed.These pages cover everything about APA and MLA.

  • Learn why and how to cite sources in text
  • How to create complete citations for References (APA) and Works Cited (MLA) pages
  • How to format your research papers in APA or MLA style.
  • You'll also learn best practices for avoiding plagiarism and what it means to join the scholarly conversation as a student at Clackamas Community College!

Why cite?

What is citing? Citing is the practice of giving credit to the information sources from which you’ve taken ideas, paraphrased, quoted, or otherwise used in some way in your paper or presentation.

Why is citing important?
There are four primary reasons to cite your sources. Citing your sources:

  1. Allows your reader to continue learning about your topic by making it easy to follow up with your cited sources.

  2. Strengthens your credibility and argument, because your readers can easily verify the claims you’ve made.

  3. Is an opportunity for you to show how your work builds upon research and ideas that have come before. Citing existing ideas and research allows you and your reader to recognize connections between your work and established knowledge, and understand how your ideas fit into the larger conversation about the topic.

  4. Is expected of you. Citing your sources acknowledges the work of others – this acknowledgement is a foundational piece of academic inquiry, learning, and joining the academic conversation. Citing your sources is one aspect of student conduct expected of you and it helps you to avoid plagiarism.

Inclusive language guidelines

Inclusive language "aims to be respectful to others by treating language describing individual and group identity with sensitivity and by avoiding bias that could make some people feel excluded" (MLA 89). The APA Style Guide (7th ed.) and MLA Handbook (9th ed.) both include general guidelines regarding inclusive language. Additional resources recommended by CCC Librarians are below.

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